STUDIES
Hungarica research in the Hungarian national library prior
to the Mikes Kelemen Programme
KOVÁCS Ilona

The Mikes Kelemen Programme is a government programme for collecting and relocating the Hungarian diaspora’s heritage, such as books and manuscripts, from the Western countries or overseas to Hungary. The materials thus acquired are used for complementing the gaps of public collections in the Carpathian Basin. The library programme within the project, running for four years now, was developed and has been managed by the National Széchényi Library (OSZK). The phases and results of the project so far were discussed at a conference held in the national library in May 2017. The lectures focused primarily on the status of efforts to save this heritage. This article describes the history of Hungarica research in the national library, with special regard to Hungarica-related development works between 1945 and 2000: the early period of diaspora research and the development in the national library in this period. The Hungarica Documentation Department at the National Széchényi Library was founded in 1988. The department was in charge of developing bibliographical (Hungarica Information), biographical (Authority Files of Hungarian Names) and institutional databases (Foreign libraries collecting Hungarica materials, and Hungarika www). Unfortunately, these databases are not accessible any more: they have been reformatted or ceased, while some of them have been integrated into the Humanus database of articles in the humanities at OSZK.

Keywords: Database; History of Hungarian libra­rianship; Hungarica bibliography; Hungarica research; National bibliography; National library; Names of persons; Web; Hungarica Information; National Széchényi Library

Assisting function of libraries – doubts and confirmations
BARTOS Éva

Social and individual expectations towards libraries and librarians are changing from time to time. In Hungary, after 1945, the idea of the so-called “educating library” prevailed, with libraries having a primary role in ideological orientation and education. Later the service-providing library appeared, in which public libraries extended the range of their services to include underprivileged social groups (relying on IFLA’s professional guidelines and Hungarian library supply guidelines, also reflecting IFLA’s ideas). In many places, the necessary financial, structural and personal conditions were missing to perform the social function of libraries. After the change of the political system and joining the European Union, as a result of newly prepared professional development programmes (medium-term strategic plans, code of ethics, quality management methods, national infrastructure development and co-ordinated extension training courses), the assisting function of libraries has gained a strong emphasis. Today, libraries seek to renew and extend their services to improve the quality of life of users, to assert the public good, and to strengthen human orientation.

Keywords: Users needs; Disadvantaged readers; Library profession; History of librarianship; Public libraries; Social expectations

WORKSHOP
Are academic social networking sites the new gatekeepers?
KOLTAY Tibor

Today several academic social networking sites (ASNS) are available and used by researchers for many purposes. At the same time, reliability and credibility, guaranteed by peer review, remain central for them. This is the reason why we can say that ASNS began to leave their marks on scientific communication, but their impact is far from being regular and long lasting.

The article describes experience with ResearchGate, Academia.edu, Kudos and Mendeley. These systems were used mainly for managing the author’s online personal profile and increase the diffusion of his publications, as well as discovering and obtaining papers by other researchers. The literature on the subject focuses most often on ResearchGate, underlining (among others) that it offers RG Score and other nine of its own alternative metrics. It also enables new projects to be displayed. However, it should be more careful in treating issues of intellectual property and copyright.

Keywords: User habits; Information management, Communication; Social media; Media literacy; Publishing of scientific publications; Scientometrics; Research

ORCID – a new identifier for authors of scholarly publications
HOLL András – BILICSI Erika

The authors first provide a general overview of the role of identifiers in academic life and of the importance of uniform records and connections between them. ORCID is a not-for-profit organization founded in 2009, which works with the International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) to provide researcher identification at the level of ISO standards. Its further advantage is that is provides trustworthy copyright information, and promotes widespread scientific communication. The ORCID identifier consists of 16 digits, subdivided according to the ISNI-format. The code can also be converted to a URL leading to the researcher‘s datasheet. Currently, more than 3,000 journals collect ORCID identifiers from authors; some major publishers even expect authors to use them. ORCID-membership may be either personal or institutional or initiated by editorial offices. In May 2017, the Library and Information Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences organized an orientation workshop about ORCID. In autumn 2017 a conference will be held on the THOR project supporting open research and created with the participation of ORCID.

Keywords: Identification; Accessibility; Publishing of scientific publications; Names of persons; Research; ISNI; ORCID; THOR; Library and Information Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences

OUTLOOK
Legal deposit of electronic materials.
An overview of international regulations
BOGNÁR Noémi Erika – JÁVORKA Brigitta – SZABÓ Piroska – TÓTH Máté

When designing the legal deposit of electronic materials, special aspects must be taken into consideration (such as reliable physical storage, long-term preservation, copyright protection, and cataloguing with metadata, etc.). The European Commission’s Recommendation (2011/711/EU) addresses the provision of digital content at a European level. The Member States developed (or are planning to develop) their own regulations on preserving and making national digital content online accessible. The literature review provides examples worth considering from related practice (or plans) in the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Estonia, Sweden and Singapore.

Keywords: Electronic publications; Legal deposit; Literature review

Divide and do not conquer! A report on the OCLC conference, Berlin 2017
DANCS Szabolcs

OCLC‘s regional conference, held in Berlin, in spring 2017 has highlighted – beyond describing trends and developments – some changes (e.g., the responsibility of libraries to bridge cultural differences and to undertake openness, to share and reuse information). In this subjective report, the author calls attention to the United Kingdom‘s national bibliographic knowledge base model, as well as to the practice of the consortium between Dutch university libraries and the Royal Library. Both cases are good examples for a transfer from national/regional library infrastructure to international (WorldShare) platforms, and for global infrastructures. Other themes deserving mention: the importance of using big data in a responsible manner; a debate about a more modern library image indicating that libraries are seeking their identities. The Polish national library has made a shift towards the application of semantic solutions when enriching data elements in MARC21 descriptions.

Keywords: Big data; International co-operation; International conference; Union catalogue; External services; OCLC EMEA

Network metadata universe – libraries at the crossroads. The OCLC EMEA regional conference in 2017
HORVÁTH Zoltánné

This follow-up to a previous conference report summarizes main trends. The participants declared that a new kind of strategic thinking is needed in networked data management. With old systems and platforms, it has become difficult to work within an institutional framework. It is fundamental to reconsider data exchange formats and to solve cloud-based storage. In addition to big data, the web of data and linked data, the Internet of Things have also appeared on the scene. The speakers emphasized that libraries are facing a decision: they must move forward as soon as possible with the joint development of national and global infrastructures and platforms. It will be essential to rethink the use of MARC formats, to design FRBR-type data management procedures, and to make data available in the semantic web.

Keywords: Big data; Exchange format; International co-operation; Cloud-based service; International conference; Union catalogue; External services, Web; OCLC EMEA

FROM OUR PAST
Libraries in the „cultural revolution”. Szabad Nép on libraries and reading (1945–1956)
SONNEVEND Péter

From the spring of 1945 until the autumn of 1956 the daily of the Hungarian Communist Party, Szabad Nép covered the topic of libraries and reading extensively. Analyzing the articles and important news based on the digital version of the newspaper it was found that the Party considered libraries as tools of agitation and propaganda only. The newspaper expected libraries to take a stand against the old bourgeois world and for progress. To this end, collections of retrograde (fascist, etc.) material had to be cleansed, and readers who refused to accept readings of new, “leading” ideas had to be laid off. The typical “scenario” of editorials and lengthy articles was as follows: outlining the achievements that had exceeded all previous levels, and then listing current tasks. Should there be problems, the reasons could be either the “undermining activity” of the enemy, or the weakness of ideological education. This unrealistic scheme eased slightly only after the summer of 1953, thanks to the “new phase” under the reign of Prime Minister Imre Nagy, but later, from 1955, a harder tone started to dominate again. Nevertheless, libraries have hardly played such a big role in the “cultural revolution” as did the press or films.

Keywords: State control; History librarianship; History of the press; History of culture; Public relations; Social requirements; Szabad Nép

Reading movements and reading campaigns between 1945 and 1956
POGÁNY György

At certain times in the Rákosi era cultural policy wished to enhance reader activities by pushing library propaganda and by organizing various reading movements and reading campaigns. Reading movement in the coalition times constituted spontaneously evolving literature popularization on the one hand, and a movement that officially supported the propagation of certain books, on the other. After 1948 there were examples mainly for the latter. According to the ideology of the Communist Party, the old-type readership had to be eliminated, and socialist-type readers had to be created. To strengthen the demand for reading, organizations, such as the Cultural Association of Hungarian Book of Friends, or the centrally supported and directed reading forms (e.g., the Great Budapest Reading Movement), that started in 1949, were relied upon. The article describes the methods of organizing and operating controlled reading movements and reading circles. The increase in the number of readers was statistically verifiable, while the main goal was not the aesthetic education of readers, but the dissemination of communist ideology.

Keywords: History of librarianship; Cultural policy; Education to reading; Reading circle; Reading movement; Rákosi era

BOOK REVIEWS
A resource-book on the reading camp movement, 1972-2001
Lélekpendítés 1. A hatvani olvasótáborosok kalandozása a Kárpát-medencében 1972–2001. Szerk. Bacsa Tibor, Kocsis István, Kovács Gábor. Hatvan, 2016.
(Rev.: Nagy Attila)

Keywords: Disadvantaged readers; History of librarianship; Reading camp; Education to readers; Book review

Essays for the book historian, István Monok on his 60th birthday
MONOKgraphia. Tanulmányok Monok István 60. születésnapjára. Szerk. Nyerges Judit, Verók Attila, Zvara Edina. Budapest, Kossuth, 2016. 847 p.
(Rev.: Pogány György)

Keywords: Festschrift; Book history; History of printing; History of culture; Book review

Chapters from the history of the library of the Reformed Secondary Grammar School, Kunszentmiklós
Balogh Mihály – Kisari Ottilia: Fejezetek a kunszentmiklósi református gimnáziumi könyvtár történetéből. A huszonöt éves Pro Baksayana Alapítvány. Budapest, Magyarországi Református Egyh. Zsinati Hiv., 2016. 149 p
(Rev.: Keveházi Katalin)

Keywords: School library; History of libraries; History of culture; Book review

Cultural and intellectual exchange in the Belle Époque
Information beyond borders. International cultural and intellectual exchange in the Belle Époque. Ed. Warden Boyd Rayward. London–New York, Ashgate, 2014.
(Rev.: Németh Márton)

Keywords: Information history; History of culture; Book review

FROM LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE JOURNALS
(Abstracts)