Digitization of cultural heritage in the European Union –
results of the ENUMERATE project
The ENUMERATE project was completed in spring 2014. Funded by the European Commission, ENUMERATE aimed to collect reliable and comparable statistical data on the digitization and digital preservation activities in European countries. During the three years of the project two quantitative and a qualitative survey were conducted among European public collections in charge of the digitization of their cultural heritage (such as libraries, archives, museums, galleries, film institutions, archives, and conservation agencies of historic monuments).
The quantitative survey took place at the beginning and in the closing year of the project. Findings show that a vast majority of institutions, 83%, is engaged in digitization activities: all national libraries, 81% of academic libraries, and 75% of public libraries. In terms of the amount of digitized documents, however, a large backlog was discovered. Film institutes, museums, and archives were found the most advanced in digitizing cultural heritage and its documents by type, while libraries are lagging behind. Only 34% of the institutions have a digitization strategy.
The current study focuses on three issues (costs, access, and collection size). The amounts spent on digitization are the lowest in libraries and archives, in proportion to the number of employees.
The project has yielded other results in addition to comparable statistical data: a dialogue has started between these institutions. The joint research methodology will allow the elaboration of international comparative analyses and the use of a unified terminology. Free use of orphan works in libraries providing public services
The paper describes the use of orphan works, as a new case of free use granted to beneficiary institutions, on the occasion that an amendment of the Copyright Act entered into force in Hungary on October 29, 2014, based on the 2012/28/EU Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (October 25, 2012). The Directive harmonises and facilitates the digitization of orphan works belonging to the collection of beneficiary institutions and their legitimate release to the public across borders. The Directive regulates only the use related to digitization and on-demand access.
The article discusses the new rules for the use of orphan works in the Copyright Act, together with the detailed rules for the use of orphan works (government decree 138/2014 (IV. 30.), outlining plans for the provision of orphan works within the Hungarian Electronic Document Supply System (ELDORADO).Through the national library and partner libraries, ELDORADO, by assisting diligent search in a unified way, will ensure legitimate access not only to works in the public domain, but also to those under the protection of copyright, such as orphan works.
Resources and tools of legal reference in Hungary. Part 1. Information service on legal regulations
The author presents the resources and tools of legal information in three major categories: substantive law, enforcement practices, and legal theory and literature.
The description of resources starts with a short introduction to theory and legal background in each case. Resources described – mainly electronic – are presented based on the holdings of the Library of the Hungarian Parliament functioning as a special library with national responsibilities. The resources in question assist precise orientation in Hungarian substantive law, Hungarian court practice, and Hungarian legal literature.
This first part of the essay deals with information concerning substantive law as follows: publication sources from 1945 to present; electronic resources on law and collections of legal regulations; publication resources of historical legal regulations (prior to 1945); indices to legal regulations.
Digitization and provision of newspapers in the world and in Hungary.
The case of the daily Délmagyarország
The author reviews major foreign newspaper digitization projects and newspaper archives (completed with two examples from Hungary) first, then describes the newspaper digitization project of the Klebelsberg Library at the University of Szeged. The programme was launched in 2012, with the aim to digitize 105 volumes of the daily Délmagyarország (1910–2014) and to set up a newspaper archive (DélmagyArchív).
The work is performed in co-operation with the Somogyi-library (Szeged) and other large libraries helping to locate missing issues. The planning phase estimated 300 to 500 thousand pages to be digitized and processed by the end of 2014. The article describes typical issues (e.g. missing pages, wrong numbering), solutions to these issues, and the results achieved so far. After the complete upload there will be approx. 150 thousand records record in the system. The repository contains digital versions of issues in two-layer PDF format with a search option in the data and full text of documents and applying. Web 2.0 solutions.
Bibliotherapy for disadvantaged secondary school students
BÉRES Judit – SÓRON Ildikó – TEGZES Tünde – ZSIDAI Borbála
The study summarizes experiences from bibliotherapy sessions with disadvantaged students at three types of secondary (grammar, vocational, and technical) school. Funded by the Hungarian Literature Therapy Association, Ildikó Sóron and Tünde Tegzes carried out bibliotherapy in two consecutive years with disadvantaged students in a technical school in Budapest; Judit Béres with socially or mentally disadvantaged students in a grammar school in Pécs; while Borbála Zsidai with students in need of special education in a vocational school in Várpalota.
Using examples from their own experience the authors demonstrate the scope and methods of their work, the selection of reading materials to assist personality development, as well as the games assisting attunement to reading. They provide an overview of the literary works used, their popularity among students, and the therapeutic effect of texts in their practice.
The programmes with students of different talent and motivation may provide guidance and ideas to librarians, teachers and mental health professionals who plan activities with secondary school students. For these therapeutic activities annotated subject bibliographies and literary guides would be needed. It would be a big step forward, if schools recognized the importance of bibliotherapy and integrated literature or art therapy into their educational programmes.
About e-reading – lessons from a debate at the Faculty of Arts at the Eötvös Loránd University of Budapest
About e-books – round-table discussion at the LIS department of the Eötvös Loránd University of Budapest
The Library and Information Science Institute at the Eötvös Loránd University Faculty of Arts organized a round-table discussion on e-books and e-reading for librarians, publishers and faculty. The experts sought common points of reference and formulated their arguments for and against e-books. János Fodor, as participant in the discussion, focuses on the lessons of this meeting, while Márton Németh, from the audience, summarizes and comments on the opinions expressed.
FROM OUR PAST
Sixty years of the journal Könyvtári Figyelő. Part 2. (1969–2014)
The history of the journal is discussed by a combination of content analysis of articles and conclusions from quantifiable data about editorial practice. The first part of the article (see Könyvtári Figyelő, 2014. 3. 331–344.) covered the first two of the four phases in the journal’s history (1955 to 1968). This second part analyses the third phase (1969 to 1990), and outlines the evolution of professional thinking, based on publications in the period 1991 through 2013. Although financial constraints have always been part of the journal’s existence, by the millennium the journal’s web page was developed, and its archive includes full text back to 1990. Today, further restrictions make it difficult to publish the journal in print, and this leads the editors to new strategies.
Máté Kovács in the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
The library profession has it that Máté Kovács (then director of the University Library of Debrecen) was invited in 1953 to „rescue” the Library of HAS and to elaborate its development concept. The article – based on unpublished archival sources – presents a detailed history of why the library had to be saved, and what role Máté Kovács played in it.
The Board of HAS, reorganized in 1949, was dissatisfied with the work of the Director of the Library, Tibor Scher, so in 1952 he was removed from his post. As potential candidates were employed elsewhere, until finding the right person to head the library, a three-member committee was set up, led by Máté Kovács. (The other two members were Gyula Haraszthy, head of the Library of the University of Economics and László Mátrai, Director of the ELTE University Library.) The committee elaborated in 1952-1953 the library’s new collection building policy and began to modernize library work procedures. The leaders of HAS were satisfied with the changes, and commissioned Gyula Haraszthy to manage the HAS Library.
The state of the art of web archiving.
Preservation of digital culture, archiving of network resources – operation of national web archives – are listed in many countries among the tasks of national libraries, closely connected with the legal deposit service. In some countries the legal framework of web archiving has already been elaborated. In 2003, IIPC (the International Internet Preservation Consortium) was set up to deal with the technical and legal aspects of web archiving. In Hungary, László Drótos worked out in 2006 the concept of the Hungarian Internet Archive (MIA), but the programme has not been implemented. National web archiving is a huge task that cannot be achieved without cooperation. The review covers the practice of national web archives in Australia, Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom and the US, based on relevant websites, as well as Hungarian and foreign literature.
Librarianship during National Socialism and Fascism. Two analyses
Das deutsche und italienische Bibliothekswesen im Nationalsozialismus und im Faschismus. Versuch einer vegleichenden Bilanz. Hrsg. von K. Kempf, S. Kuttner. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2013.; BABENDREIER, J.: Nationalsozialismus und bibliothekarische Erinnerungskultur. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2013.
(Reviewed by Péter Sonnevend)
Handbook of information science
STOCK Wolfgang G. – STOCK, Mechtild: Handbook of information science. Berlin: De Gruyter Saur, 2013.
(Reviewed by Anikó Dudás)
Studies on education to reading
Kié az olvasás? Tanulmányok az olvasóvá nevelésről. Szerk. Gombos Péter, Bp. Magyar Olvasástárs. 2014.)
(Reviewed by Gabriella Pogány-Rózsa)
FROM LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE JOURNALS