Banned books in post-war Hungary, 1945–1946
SIPOS Anna Magdolna
The study describes the historical and political environment of book weeding activities carried out in 1945–1946, the political processes in the background of the book lists in question and their composition.
In 1945 a legal regulation made it compulsory to withdraw fascist, anti-Soviet and anti-democratic literature held in libraries, bookshops and print offices, and to destroy them. In 1945–1946 four lists of prohibited items were prepared. The first one was published in August 1945. It contained approximately 2000 books published mainly in the thirties and forties. In the spring of 1946 a new weeding process begun urged by the Soviets, whose implementation was strictly controlled. The second list contained fewer items. The majority of books on this list were published in the twenties, and as a result of the Trianon Treaty
many discussed revisionist views. The list was dominated by German-language books that were deemed to be weeded. Beside 23 prohibited journals 129 notes (e.g. military and irredentist songs) were banned. The third list contained 562 Hungarian- and 49 German-language books. The majority of titles were of revisionist, anti-Semitic, nationalistic and militaristic nature. Beside Italian and German publications also works disseminating Japanese nationalist ideas became prohibited. The fourth list contained 523 items, mostly books and pamphlets etc. in Hungarian with racist and Nazi ideas, as well as anti-Soviet items by subject, but every list included „innocent“ or strongly disputable items too.
Reading development – focusing on readers
The study reports on a reading development training organised by the British Council and the Hungarian Library Institute in March 2007, led by Rachel Van Riel (United Kingdom), and on some similar initiatives in Hungary.
In the UK a programme to foster library use has been in operation for 15 years. Librarians try to draw attention to books and to the supporting role of reading. They pay more attention to user habits, prepare smart hand-outs and recommend books for different user groups, bring readers with similar interest together, so that they suggest books to each other or talk about books. To make book selection easier, librarians arrange the books in the reading room in an alternative way (e.g. grouping them by subject, by season, by age or gender). An easy-to-use database helps readers to identify their fields of interest and search relevant books.
The author describes a database created by the Hungarian Library Institute and the Hungarian Reading Association with annotated titles of children‘s and youth literature (http://www.ki.oszk.hu/gyerekirodalom).
Human resource management in public libraries in Hungary
TÓTHNÉ HEGYI Judit
The article summarises a survey conducted in autumn 2005 in Hungarian city libraries. The survey analysed if the techniques, that have evolved in other fields long ago, were in use in Hungarian libraries for developing organisational culture. The questionnaires were sent to a total of 160 institutions, i.e. 53% of municipal and county libraries. The return rate was 21%, the respondents represented only 14% of city libraries. The core of the questionnaire (with
32 items) inquired about human resource management (HRM) issues, such as manpower planning, analysis and assessment; job descriptions; recruitment, selection and training of manpower, qualification, performance assessment, staff development, incentives, otivation, compensation etc. The open questions asked about problem areas and those needing change regarding HRM areas.
The findings have confirmed the hypothesis that HRM in city libraries is handled at the level of personnel administration. The responding directors have already taken certain steps in every area analysed, and felt the need for a better HRM. To the most problematic issues that are ripe for development and change belong performance measurement and the system of performance assessment, as well as motivation and incentives.
Gyula Kertész’ work on the theory of bibliography
Gyula Kertész (1935–2002) has done a lot for the development of bibliographic culture in Hungary as a teacher, librarian, author and compiler of bibliographies. The study, after presenting in short his life and professional career, gives an overview of his main research fields: recording local history literature (theoretical and terminological questions of general local history bibliographies, as well as methodical issues of bibliographies), repertories of
journals (with special regard to the importance of recording articles in newspapers) and the tasks for retrospective national bibliographic activities.
Kertész dealt with the problems of repertories in university textbooks too. He produced two special works from this research: a pioneering historical-critical Annotated bibliography of repertories of Hungarian journals [A magyar sajtó repertóriumainak annotált bibliográfája], and a methodical summary, Repertories of Hungarian periodicals [A magyar időszaki kiadványok egyedi repertóriumai]. In his lectures and essays too he often analysed the tasks related to preparing the repertories of individual journals. In his opinion the cataloguing of newspaper articles must be an organic part of the system of the national, local and special bibliographies.
In the last phase of his career he headed a team working on a period (1920-1944) of Hungarian national bibliography. The relevant additions and corrections started to be collected under his direction. He regarded the personal study of materials and careful proof-reading as very important factors in bibliographical activity. His longer-term plans also included the cataloguing of notes, maps and foreign Hungarica publications from the same period.
His theoretical work was characterised by a system approach, historical thinking, and a strong commitment to solve terminological, theoretical and methodical issues.
Kertész’ bibliographies are exemplary in quality. Scientific research into and the evaluation of his life work is supported also by his bequest held and accessible in the Debrecen University Library.
Remarks on Zoltán Ferenczi’s study on library policy issues
The introduction outlines the professional activity of Zoltán Ferenczi (1857–1927), one of the most prestigious figures of library policy, director of the Budapest University Library (later of the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), and highlights the context of the study on library policy re-published in this issue.
Libraries as vital tools of the national culture
(Reprinted from the journal Múzeumi és Könyvtári Értesítő, 4. no. 1909)It is the main purpose of the study to argument that school education does not provide sufficient knowledge for people for their lives. Beside education it is reading in the mother tongue and libraries as places where books can be accessed that can prevent people from sinking back to ignorance. A good library with its interior and exterior is attractive, its reading room is inviting and freely accessible for all. Ferenczi names as good examples the practice of developed nations, where public libraries are very popular, and recommends to follow their model.
The application of public lending right in international practice. Part 2
The study continues reporting on the application of Public Lending Right in the European Union. The first part (see Könyvtári Figyelő 2007. no. 1.) described the general principles, the points of view of legislation and the library profession.
This second part presents the countries where the system has been implemented recently, as well as those where the regulation exists, but the application of PLR in practice is planned for the future only.
Library and Information Science education in Europe. A review
An overview of literature based on the issue 2 of 2007 of the Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, focusing on the goals of the projects LIS Education in Europe and LIS Curriculum. The projects were aimed at analysing the fundamental frames, structures, levels and output forms of European LIS education.
Problems of the automated transliteration of Cyrillic data
Publishers, readers and books on the Russian book market (STYKALINA, O. S.)
Abstracted by Ágnes Hangodi
Koltay Tibor: Virtuális, elektronikus, digitális
(Reviewed by Máté Tóth)
Women and books. About the book sector and gender studies from a common view
Die Freundinnen der Bücher.
SIPOS Anna Magdolna
A modern university library in a historical building Univerzitná knižnica v Bratislave. [Zost. Tibor Trgińa.]
(Reviewed by Szabolcs Dancs)