MARC21/HUNMARC: Metadata formats of the authority files. Main characteristics, development and problems

Authority formats or metadata formats play a special role in the logical structuring of collection systems, and are at the same time treasuries for the better know¬ledge of these systems. They have the same role in the world of collections as anatomy in medicine: the knowledge of formats is as essential for professional work in libraries, archives or museums in the information society as is anatomy for doctors. These formats constitute at the same time explicit descriptions of the logical structures of knowledge organization systems and name spaces. The Hungarian authority format (HUNMARC) is a national adaptation of the MARC21 authority format. Its examples have been derived from Hungarian library practice. The author describes the structure of the HUNMARC format based upon the basic definitions of the data model (entity, relationship, attribute) relying upon IFLA’s functional requirements. He deals with the historical evolution of the concept „authority data”, its extension to the collection systems of archives, management records and museums, with special regard to the importance of harmonisation. He analyses in detail the concepts of tracing and reference as specially interpreted in the MARC-format, and makes a proposal for the Hungarian translation of these terms. The format offers a rich choice of relation types; a major part of which have not yet been in use in Hungary (e.g. the complex name and subject reference), and the opportunities offered by several types of notes have not yet been utilised either. The study discusses these issues in detail. It also treats the location of descriptors and nondescriptors within the format, as well as the requirements arising from thesaurus application.

The place of Vojvodina (Vajdaság) and Totovo Selo (Tóthfalu) in Hungarian reading culture in the Carpathian basin

The study presents the reading culture of the inhabi¬tants of Vojvodina (Serbia) using the data of empirical investigations about the reading habits of the Hungarian minority living in Vojvodina.
In 2000 a series of questionnaire surveys was carried out; the study relies basically on these initial data. Its findings, published as representative data, were compared with the findings of a questionnaire survey in 2005 in Totovo Selo (Bačka) and with those of a questionnaire survey in 2008 among young people living in Hungary. As compared to the situation of reading culture in the mother country, those living in the neighbouring countries (Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, the Ukraine) perform better: they read more newspapers, weeklies and monthlies, as well as books, have a stronger demand for literary values and traditions. The language of reading materials is dominantly the mother tongue, although the ratio of reading materials in languages other than Hungarian has increased among young people.
A decrease in the importance of classical literary heritage, and also of fiction and valuable literature can be observed in the same age group. The „textual community” by the mother tongue, which helps to preserve identity, still exists, but the impact of modernisation, assimilation, commercialisation etc. can already be felt.

After ten years: about regional libraries founded 60 years ago (Part 2)
TÓTH, Gyula

The first part of the study was published in issue 4, 2009.
In Hungarian library literature the regional library model (1949-1951) has been considered for a long time as a blind alley in library development. The paper wants to justify that the model was not wrong conceptually, but was rather an unfinished experiment that has gone wrong because of the circumstances, nevertheless, had an important role in Hungarian library history.
Géza Sebestyén’s original two concepts from 1942 and 1946 brought up modern aims and democratic principles: to provide public library services in smaller communities at the level of town libraries, instead of the poor people’s libraries. The original concept was about a library system, a library network that provides services of high quality, but, after the political changes in 1948, it could not be fulfilled. Neither the circumstances in the country, nor the models from abroad have supported the idea of regional libraries, based on town libraries.
The collections of these regional library centres, placed in towns with ca 80-90 thousand inhabitants, were planned to have 10-15 thousand volumes. In the course of time, however, the model has been substantially transformed. Originally, 60-70 such centres were planned, but finally only 35 were founded between 1949 and 1951. The main problem was that regional libraries could not function in the planned way, i.e. in the „dualism” of a basic and a mobile collection (the latter to be circulated among branch libraries). The political, economic and cultural conditions (insufficient book supply, lack of qualified staff, and transport opportunities) were far from the ideal. A quantitative approach, ideology and propaganda have dominated, instead of professional issues. In addition, the implementation of the original concept was hindered by the Hungarian administration system as well: regional library centres have not always coincided with the seats of county administration.
However, this new library type could be only a transition form in the Hungarian library history of the fifties.


A Nazi journal on librarianship in Germany: the first volume of Die Bücherei in 1934

In its first year (1933) the Nazi state presented itself with demonstrating power, with book burnings and total control of German libraries and librarians. By the end of 1933, Germany’s two library journals were merged into a single, new, Nazi publication. Die Bücherei’s first issue appeared in January 1934 and was edited by Wilhelm Schuster (1888-1971), Librarian of the Hamburg Public Library, since 1932 member of the Nazi party, co-author of „Clarification and Entreaty” (1933), described by his contemporaries as a „man of political flexibility”.
The publication of Die Bücherei constituted the symbolic end of an independent library profession in Germany. The country’s two former professional library journals had been replaced by a vehicle for Nazi ideology.
The study demonstrates, analysing the papers in the first year’s issues, that the journal served mainly two purposes: it defined what constituted the „un-German” spirit in literature, and called for the „rethinking” of library collections and their content.
Preserving future: a memorandum from Germany

ZUKUNFT BEWAHREN. Eine Denkschrift der Allianz zur Erhaltung des schriftlichen Kulturguts. Berlin, 2009
(Abstract by Lajos Murányi)

The Allianz zur Erhaltung des schriftlichen Kulturguts (Alliance for the Preservation of Written Culture) was founded in 2001 in Germany by major libraries and archives with important collections holding rare books and manuscripts, with the objective to act together to save and preserve the German written cultural heritage. The Alliance urged the elaboration of a study that summarizes the state of the art of preservation and indicates the main tasks. In 2007 a committee at the Bundestag proposed that the Alliance should work out a national concept on preservation. The memorandum calls upon the federation and the states to support preservation and to promote cooperation.

CEYNOWA, Klaus: Mass digitization strategy of the Bavarian State University
(IFLA Journal, vol. 35. 2009. no. 1. p. 17-24.)
(Abstract by Péter Dévai)

The Bavarian State Library is one of the largest European research libraries. The Library‘s unique collection profile is characterized by extremely precious manuscripts, rare printed books and comprehensive special collections from thousands of years of cultural heritage. Responding to the challenges of the digital age, it is a primary strategic objective of the Bavarian State Library to digitize as soon as possible its unique collections, which are a good part of written cultural heritage, and to make them usable for the world. Aiming for this strategic objective, the library undertakes several large-scale digitization projects, which will bring more than 1.2 million books online during the next few years. The deployment of state-of-the-art robotic scanners, as well as a public-private partnership with Google, which are part of this digitization strategy, is described in detail. The implications for the future role of libraries – especially as ‘bricks and books’ institutions – in the rapidly changing information landscape are also briefly discussed. (Original abstract of the paper presented at the World Library and Information Congress, 10–14 August 2008, Québec)

MÜHLBERGER, Günter – GSTREIN, Silvia: eBooks on demand (EOD): a European digitization service
(IFLA Journal, vol. 35. 2009. no. 1. p. 35-43.)
(Abstract by Péter Dévai)

Within the framework of the European Union funded project Digitization on Demand (2006—2008), the eBooks on Demand service (EOD) is currently available in more than eighteen libraries in ten countries. EOD enables users to order public domain books as PDF eBooks. The requested books are digitized, delivered as an eBook and saved long-term in a digital library. The EOD service is implemented within the framework of a network. The individual library is responsible for the processing of the order and the digitization. The ordering of eBooks, delivery to the customer, electronic payment and automatic text recognition even for old and Gothic font texts are supported through a central database with web access. The basic advantages of the network lie on the one hand in the reduced workload of individual libraries and on the other hand in the recognition value of the EOD service for the user and the public. (Original abstract)


Issues of digital preservation
Digital preservation. Ed. M. Deegan, S. Tanner. (London : Facet, cop. 2006.)
(Review by Tibor Koltay)
Könyvtári Figyelő (Library Review) 20. (56). vol. 2010. 1. no. p. 143–146.

The first fifty years of AHF
The Hungarian legacy in America. The history of the American Hungarian Foundation : the first fifty years, 1955–2005. Ed. Ilona Kovács. (New Brunswick : American Hungarian Foundation, 2007.)
(Review by Judit Hajnal Ward)
Könyvtári Figyelő (Library Review) 20. (56). vol. 2010. 1. no. p. 147–149.

A book on religious life and cultural habits in Hungary
Vallásosság és kultúra. A Fiatal Vallás- és Értékszociológusok Körének tanulmánykötete. Ed. by Ferenc Gereben. Bp. : Faludi Ferenc Akadémia, 2009.
(Review by Melinda Péceli)
Könyvtári Figyelő (Library Review) 20. (56). vol. 2010. 1. no. p. 150–154.

Rebuilding the educational system in Hungary: a recommendation
Szárny és teher. Ajánlás a nevelés-oktatás rendszerének újjáépítésére és a korrupció megfékezésére. Bp. : Bölcsek Tanácsa Alapítvány, 2009.
(Review by Attila Nagy)
Könyvtári Figyelő (Library Review) 20. (56). vol. 2010. 1. no. p. 155–158

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