Changes of the copyright law. Part 2.

KISS Zoltán

After the presentation of the new copyright law that came to force on 1st September 1999 (law LXXVII. of 1999) (see Könyvtári Figyelo, No. 1-2. 2000.), this time the changes of legal regulations related to Internet and multimedia applications are dealt with. The rules of creating and using softwares and databases are essentially different from general rules. They do not protect the logic basis and operation systems of softwares, but the unified system of its elements. A software is considered the product of an author only if its elements form a unified system by means of source codes, or subject codes. Those who acquire the right to use the software will also be entitled to copy, adopt, or modify the program. The free use of software is not allowed even for demonstration purposes. Library loan of softwares and computer databases is also forbidden. The database is protected by copyright if it is the intellectual achievement of the author so far as its content and organisation are concerned. It is also protected as a collection, but contracts must be made for the use of its parts with the authors of individual works and components.

It is difficult to acquire the copyrights required for the publication of multimedia CD-ROMs, that urges the foundation of the institution of the “one stop shop” as it is in western countries.

Most of the unanswered questions are related to the copyright of works on the Internet. The definition of duplication had to be broadened as well as that of the notion of public presentation of a piece. In the questions already cleared up ARTISJUS has laid the foundations of contracts that could be made with various associations having rights, however, copyright of Internet works, and the violation of these rights still require regulation.

The number of citations increases, obsolation decreases. Is there a relation?

An analysis of citations in life science journals

MARTON János — RADÓ Rita — SRAMEK Réka

The study deals with the most uncertain field of bibliometry, the study of obsolation. First the theoretical background of the problem, and the findings (e.g. novelty effect, impact factor, half-life, Price index, citation density, etc.) of researchers dealing with the topic before (Price, Griffith, Száva-Kovács, Marton) are surveyed, then the results of the analysis of the authors carried out on a sample of journals (12 in biology, 9 in biochemistry and 9 in cardiology) are described.

The following were examined in the life science journals: 1) correlations of the age distribution of citations and citations by article; 2) the citation/article value and its relation to age distribution, 3) relation between age distribution and type of publication, 4) the role of articles and other publications in life sciences.

The survey analyses citations back to 1-5 years in biology, and 1-5, 6-10 and more than 10 years in the case of other journals. It was found that the citation/article values of journals show an increase between 1974 and 1998, while the number of citations and the Price index (the percentage of all citations in the first five years) manifest an inverse ratio in the given period. As compared to all the types of publication, citation of journals increased much more steeply than that of any other source. The survey clearly showed the dramatic decrease of the Price index, thus it can be concluded that there is a strong negative correlation between the citation/article value and the Price index of the same year.

User education: the plans of László Módis. Contributions to the historiography of the issue


The NAT (Basic National Curriculum) adapted in 1995 prescribes the teaching of library and computer use until the age of 16. The significance of user education and the possibilities of its incorporation in the curriculum have already been included in a plan elaborated by László Módis, librarian of the Debrecen University Library in 1958. The essence of his proposal was that all the members of the society have to be trained in the use of books and libraries systematically and institutionally. This task was to be carried out by teachers in the training institutions. This “library training” is not the same as the training of librarians, since librarians require further special and technical knowledge. It is a debatable element of his conception that librarians were not involved in the general training, instead it user education was based on teacher voluntaries. He compiled detailed curricula for all the three levels of training (elementary, secondary, higher education). On all the three levels one lesson per week was suggested combined with practices in libraries. The study contains a condensed version of the curriculum of each training level. The plan has never been realised due to the lack of proper school libraries, and receptivity, still it offers useful ideas worth for consideration even today.

The significance of teaching “library informatics” at universities


The basic idea of the study is that permanent education, and participation in further and new training courses, offering a last chance for many, become essential for broader and broader strata of society either under existential pressure, or due to individual motives. However, those participating in any kind of training cannot do without the use of libraries, having good collections and services, and the help of librarians. The study gives a sketch of the history of user education in the field of technical training in Hungary and abroad. On the bases of the author’s own experience, gained in the Miskolc University library as a librarian and a teacher, ideas regarding the teaching of librarianship and informatics are summarised. One of the important issues is to decide who should teach what. The author is of the opinion that a joint effort of lecturers and librarians is required in an optimal case to lead students to sources of technical literature. Beside indispensable theoretical and historical knowledge, training should focus on information retrieval and use. He considers it important that not only the the techniques of information searching be taught, but also topcis of general concern like behaviour, dressing, presentation, writing, career development, etc., close to real life, be dealt with. 

University students in Miskolc: their habits of library use in 1998


The university, that used to be one for heavy industry, was transformed into a university with a faculties of law, arts and economics as well in the 1980s. The transition put a heavy burden on the central library of the university, but it also meant a great challenge because an increased number of students had to be served, and the literature of the new disciplines had to be acquired, and provided. 10% of full time students (218 persons) were involved in the questionnaire survey about their habits of library use and spending their leisure time. 97% of the sample was a member of the university library, but 55% used other libraries, too. The majority of the sample (69%) gets the supplementary material required for their studies from the university library, which also indicates that the library has prepared fairly well for the satisfaction of the university’s needs. In most cases (89%) items are borrowed, then follows the reading of newspapers, weeklies, journals (79%). 57% uses the library for studying regularly. 65% use the computers at the reading room. The following were mentioned as criticism: more technical books, more copies of lecture notes would be required, as well as longer opening others, and more terminals at the reading room. The persons asked use the library intensively, but they also like to borrow compulsory literature from other libraries of the town. The results of the survey were promising from the point of view of library use, and the students are also satisfied all together with the services of the library. The things lacking can be made up for with proper funding.

Evaluation of the libaray’s activity and services according to the European model


Total Quality Management is a new trend in the field of quality development. The user is in the focus of the new approach, and the organisation works for the satisfaction of his explicit or latent needs. The organisation has to be development oriented from day to day. The author presents the model (excellency model of the European Foundation for Quality Management) linked to the European quality price founded for awarding the organisations applying TQM, and suggests that libraries also adopt this approach. She describes the essence of the RADAR logic based on the PDCA (plan, do, check, act) cycle, the elements of which (results, approach, deployment, asessment, review) cover and reflect the results of the organisation. This model of self evaluation had been introduced in Great Britain for public libraries and information institutions as the LISIM library self evaluation model (LISIM — Loughborough University Information Sector Improvement Model) that focuses on the customer/user/client. Formulation of a marketing strategy, participation of those involved, and motivation for action are essential elements of the model. 

How long can a library survive?


The fundamental issue of the article is that while profit oriented enterprises can survive successfully in the Hungarian information market, libraries retreat into the branches of information services that produce no or hardly any profit, though it is librarians who are best qualified for information handling and provision. The existence and social acceptance of libraries are threatened if the profession is unable to renew itself according to the needs of the market. In order to achieve this, spreading the marketing approach in libraries, and finding the target segment of the market for them were required. User surveys could also contribute to the marketing approach of libraries, if they used this means. The merits of business information services such as rapidness, comprehensive offer, adaptation to individual needs – may be attractive for libraries as well. A static and a dynamic information service model are presented in which the attitudes of librarians illustrate the static model. The up-to-date databases of business information services are mentioned, that have not been organised by librarians, and heavily used Internet portals are not operated by librarians either. Libraries are not taking part in press review services on the net either. The services of the Hungarian Electronic Library, the digital library services of the Neumann Kht., and library services aiming at broadening traditional library functions with electronic library facilities are considered innovative. These ways and means should be recognised by libraries in order to re-formulate their identity, and re-learn their approach to be able to participate in the information society.